Forest are referred to an area with high density of trees.Forest may vary significantly in size and different classification according to their composition and density. They include herbs, shrubs, and trees. About 9.4 percent of Earth’s surface is covered with the forest so are central to all human life because they provide a diverse range of resource.They purify water and minimize natural hazards such as floods. They contain biodiversity and produce oxygen for them. They may be divided into the tropical rainforest, temperate forest, coniferous forests, mountain forest and plantation forests. According to area and density here is the top 15 largest forest in the world.
1) AMAZON FOREST
Amazon forest is located in Brazil. It is RAINFOREST. Its area is 5,500,000 KM square. The majority of it is contained within Brazil. It compresses most of largest and most biodiversity of tropical rainforest with an estimated of 390 billions of trees of 16000 species.This rainforest has been in existence for at least 55 million years ago. There is evidence that there is a large number of modification in Amazon rainforest over the last 21000 years.Human inhabitants first settled in Amazon region at least 11200 years ago due to which there is an alteration in forest vegetation and biodiversity.Some five million people lived in the Amazon region between dense coastal settlement but now population reduced to two million.It is believed that the civilization was decreased due to the spread of diseases like smallpox. Deforestation is also going on due to which there is a threat to biodiversity species. Amazon forest has much biodiversity.One out of ten known species in the world lives in the Amazon rainforest he constitutes the largest collection of living plants, animals and birds. Animals in the rainforest a present in large number. There are 2.5 million insects,2000 birds,427 mammals,428 amphibians and 378 reptiles species are present in Amazon, so it is necessary to protect the largest forest in the world.
2) Taiga FOREST
It is a coniferous forest in Russia and conduits vast belt comprising about one-third of the world.It has a continental climate with long severe winter of 6 to 7 months. The principal species of trees are cedar, oat, oats, pine, spruce, birch, and aspen. Taiga forest is world largest biomass and makes 29 percent of the world; It covers the largest area in Russia and Canada. Mountain, lakes, rivers and other water bodies are also found in the taiga, but its soil is poor in nutrients due to extreme cold which stops the development of large soil number of animals and plants species are to habitat in Taiga, There are two major types of taiga forest. The southern part which has closely spaced trees and the northern part which much spaced trees. Evergreen species in taiga are fir, pine and spruce coniferous trees are dominant plants of taiga biomass. Among animals, brown bears are widely spread here. There are 85 species of animals, 130 species of fish and 32000 species of insects are found which play important role in pollinations. It is home to a large number of herbivorous mammals. More than 300 species of birds have nested in taiga forest.
3) BOREAL FOREST
These forests are extensions of taiga forest in North America. Numerous animals’ species are found here. Carnivores are cats and dogs. Tigers are large size cats found here. Herbivores are also of different size.Types of trees are pine, spruce and coniferous. There is much threat to the boreal forest but most important is petroleum products which are lies in these forests. Due to this reason, deforestation is going on for getting petroleum products. The other treat is global warming, due to which forest is going to be warm enough for deciduous trees. Logging is always a threat; unless carefully managed. A large area of forest has also been flooded as part of hydroelectric projects. Many of great American National forest purls in the west are covered with boreal forest. Water plays an important role in maintaining the forest. The boreal forest is restricted to the northern hemisphere. It is circumpolar in distribution. In North America, several kinds of boreal forest occur in mountains of the west.Very tall coniferous are present in the boreal forest such as giant sequoia is 272 feet tall and has a diameter of 37 fetes.
4) TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST
This forest is located in Alaska states of America. Its area is 17 million acres, and it is established is September 1907.It is a temperate rainforest. It is home to many rare and endangered species of animals and plants. It is also home to 75000 people who are dependent on land for their livelihoods. There are thirty communities in it which are unique and protected creatures. Many migratory birds spend summer in it. About 40 percent of it is composed of wetlands like snow, ice, mountains and nonforest vegetation. There are 19 designated wilderness areas in it. This forest offers outstanding recreation opportunities for tourist and domestic people. Most come by cruise ship. There are one million visitors every year. There are 150 recreation cabins for the public for rent. There are many bear viewing area and extensive viewing platform above the river. Deforestation is also going on in the forest which is destroying its natural beauty.
5) CHUGACH FOREST
Forest is located in the Alaska State of America.Its area is 27,957 km square. It was established in July 1907.It includes extensive glaciers, forest, and rivers, most of which are untouched by roads. It hosts a large number of birds, mammals, and marine species. There is extensive tourism. It was established by Native American thousands of years ago and discovered by Europeans in 1700. Ice covers approximately 30 percent of the area. Wilderness study area covers 2200000 acres.There is only 140 km of service roads through this forest. There are 7 million annual visitors to this park. This is considered one of the important national parks of America .portions of Copper River cover 30 percent of wet lands in the forest. The dominant trees are limited to Sitka, spruce.This forest is known as sub polar rainforest. There is very little logging done in the Chugach only 2 percent of its wood is considered suitable for commercial logging, so there is little forestation.
6) JIANFENGLING FOREST
This forest is located in China.Its area is 47227 km square. It has 2800 types of vascular plants and 4300 of animal’s species. It is a genetic treasure for scientists. This forest is an important protected area of the highest rank. This is the very important medicinal material source and conservation area for biodiversity. There is a large source of water bodies in and around the forest. Government is responsible for the protection of this area.This is a tropical rainforest. Tourism is an important source of income for the country and domestic people. It has a diverse range of tropical vegetation and beauty unspoiled by human intervention. It is known as one of the rare ecological treasure of China, comprised of mountain, rivers, valleys and lush green trees. There are many natural wonders and mysteries to be discovered within Jianfengling natural forest park. The people who want to visit this forest are facilitated by a number of hotels near this forest.
7) HEILONGJIANG FOREST
This is the 2nd largest forest in China with an area of 454800 km square. Black Dragon River or Amur is one of the important rivers in it. It is located in the north eastern part of the country. The Amur River marks the border between the china and Russia to the north. It is in habituated by Mongolian people.Much part of it is dominated by a mountain range. The highest peak is mount Detruding at 1690 meters. The average rainfall is 400 to 700 millimeters. Clear weather is prevalent throughout the year and in spring.There is a project to construct a network of 2.3 million km roads. There are 60 rail lines of around 5300 km including a section of Asia Europe continent bridge. The major airport is Herbing international airport which has a capacity of holding 6 million passengers every year and connected to over 40 domestic and international cities. There are many hotels for visitors.There are many botanical gardens represent a wide and comprehensive cross-section of the plants. There is 12 botanical garden represent a wide variety of plants. It is used for research and provides interesting information to visitors on 12000 species grow in it. There are 20 communizes of different biodiversity.
8) DAINTREE FOREST
Daintree rain forest is located in Australia.Its area is 1200 km square along the Daintier river.It is 135 million years old. There are hiking trails, scenic lookout, camping sites, picnic tables and swimming holes to explore Daintree. The name is believed to have come by the conservationist living in it. Daintree national forest is composed of all the forest present in the area, including a residential colony of 500 people. Daintree rainforest contains 30 percent of frogs, marsupial species and 65 percent of Australian bats, butterflies, 65 percent of species of insect in the rainforest. The road passes through the lush green parts of the forest. Much of the daintier forest is part of world heritage site due to its universal natural values. It contains ancient conifers with 12 primitive angiosperm families. There is exceptional coastal scenery unusual in the world.430 species of birds live among the tree of 2656 km square area .visitors can enjoy a wonderful holiday in the forest.
9) QUEENS LAND FOREST
Queens land forest is also located in North West Australia and belong to Australasian cozened.It is designated as one of the global 200 Ecoregions. It is home to the ataractic flora. Confers are the characteristics trees of this forest. These forests are limited to the area of high rainfall and good soils. These forests are particularly interesting because of their plants and animals species. The forest together with the great Barriers reef have been identified and promoted as a major tourist attraction. Forest Lake was the first master-planned community of Brisbane in queen’s land. It has won numerous awards for its design.Forest Lake was considered instrumental in the creation of affordable housing in Australia. It was completed and opened in 1994.Deforestation is also going on for logging, roads construction and farming has led to habitat fragmentation and diminishing population of species.Government is trying to stop deforestation.
10) TARKINE FOREST
Tarkine forest is located in North West of Tasmania. This forest has a large number of the wilderness area. Tarkine is noted for its beauty and natural values. It is containing largest cool temperate rain forest. It is the area between two rivers of south and north. There are various ways to enter in Tarkine forest. Its area is 1800 km square a and 400 km square of eucalypt forest and other vegetation.It has a high diversity of nonvascular plants like mosses, liverworts, and lichens, including 151 species of liverworts and 92 species of mosses. It has 28 terrestrial mammals, 111 land and freshwater birds, 11 reptiles, 8 reptiles, and 13 fresh water species. Tarkine provides habitat for 60 rare, endangered and threatened species of floras and fauna. It has rivers, mountains, cave system, plateau and dune area. The campaign to protect Tarkine began in 1960.Now around 80 percent of Tarkine is protected from logging .In 2009 Tarkine was listed as National Heritage Area .The Tarkine is Tasmania’s large rainforest.
11) ARIZONA FOREST
It is located in the Arizona State of America.Its area is 109,100 km square. It is a temperate coniferous forest. There are 208 birds’ species.123 mammal’s species and a large number of Arizona EIK, Black bear, mountain lions, snakes, lizard and scorpion, its protected area is73 percent. There is a landscape of Steep Mountain and strong plateaus. The height of peaks is range from 1370 m to 30000 m. Some peaks are higher than this range. The rivers and banks are important habitats for specific wild life and fishes. Many birds and reptiles are also found here. The caves of the mountain are important habitat for beetles, centipedes, and other invertebrates. It is Ecoregion with 25 percent original habitat. Pollution and reduction of rivers are threading for specific plant and animals.
12) HARDPAN FOREST
Hardpan is a 12th largest forest of the world. It is largest It is largest community forts in Jambi province of Indonesia. It is a rainforest and considered as most biodiversity on the planet. It provides habitat for 3oo species of birds as well as the critically endangered Sumatran tigers and rhinoceros. The British Royal society for protection for birds is campaigning to plant one million new trees to renew the forest because of its rich wildlife. There is a threat due to oat construction of 51 km long and 50m wide road in the forest. There is another forest in Jambi also which area is 52,621 hectares along the Jambi Rivers.
13) BORNEO FOREST
This is 13th largest forest located in South East Asia.Its area 743.990 KM square. This forest is found in third largest Iceland of the world called Borneo. Iceland is divided into 3 countries Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei. About 73 percent belongs to Indonesia, 26 percent belong to Malaysia and 1 percent to Brunei. It is the oldest rainforest in the world. It has cave system such as deer cave is home to 3 million bats. This is 130 million years old. There are 15000 species of flowering plants. There are 221 species of terrestrial mammals, 420 species of birds, 440 species of fresh water fishes. World Wide Fund of Natural resources has divided the Borneo into 7 Ecoregions. Heavy logging is continued Malaysian and Indonesian plywood industries, due to which forest trees are decreasing. It needs to protect this forest.
14) SUMATRAN FOREST
Sumatran forest is 14th largest forest of the world. It is located in South East Asia in the country of Indonesia. Its area is 473.481 km square. Its highest point is Kerinci. This forest is present in Sumatra Iceland. Sumatra is only placed on Earth where all animals like tigers, elephant, leopard, and bears are found. There are 17 genera of plants.There are 201 species of mammals,580 species of birds and 300 species of freshwater fish species. This shows that Sumatra has a huge range of plants and animals species. The biodiversity has reduced up to 50 percent in the last 35 years. This deforestation is going on due to a large deposit of Gold under this forest. Government is trying to stop this deforestation. The bone of Sumatran Iceland is the Barinas mountain range with the Volcano. Sumatra is the largest producer of Indonesian coffee. Tropical rainforest covered most of Sumatra. We have to save remaining flora and fauna of Sumatra forest.
15) SUNDARBANS FOREST
Sunderbans forest is a 15th largest forest in the world. It is a single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world. It is located in Bangladesh and announced as world heritage site. Its area is 139.500 hectors. It is one of the largest reserves Bengal tigers. Sunders bans South East, and West are three protected area of Bangladesh. The meaning of sunder bans is a beautiful forest. Its forest area is 16,902 km square. It is water logged jungle. Rivers channels everywhere intersected the sunder bans. It is included in world heritage 26 out 50 mangrove types found in Sundarbans. There are 245 genera of 334 plants species. Sundarbans provide a unique and rich wild life habitat.It has 270 tigers species, 150 species of fishes,270 species of birds,42 species of mammals,35 species of reptiles and 8 amphibians species. The sunder bans in an important wintering area for migrant birds.